CTS LECTURE 6, 4/11/15, BENTHAM, FOUCAULT + THE PANOPTICON OF THE NETWORKED SOCIETY

George-Orwell-1984-

‘For the greater good’, quotes the main running line in the famous film (Hotfuzz, 2007). This embodies the idea that punishment is a spectacle intended not to reform the guilty but as an example to the innocent.

‘It is for the gaze of the innocent – that is for the gaze of those to be deterred from offences – that the guilt of the prisoners in the panopticon is staged (Bozovic, 1995). Looking at the unique circular structure of the Panopticon, there was full light, produced by an ‘inspection lantern’, making the environment fully visible. This allowed the inspector or jail guard who sat in the middle to be ‘invisible’ yet always able to see the prisoners at all times. Thus, prisoners were governed by a disembodied gaze and a voice, which gained more power by being mystified.

In the contemporary world, a good representation of this idea would be the hit reality TV show, Big Brother. ‘Big brother is watching you’, also deriving from the concept of George Orwell’s novel 1984- encompasses how one is constantly being surveyed and watched- like a bird in a cage. You could further argue that this relates to societies we live in today. Take London for example. We are now the most watched and under surveillance city in the entire world!  Parliament are currently debating whether all internet history should be tracked to keep everything ‘safe’. Does this not go against ethical laws that we should have as human beings? I get that we need to be controlled to an extent.. but where there is Power, there is restriction.

Panopticon

To begin, neither of these literary dystopian societies would have been nearly as successful without the advancement of technology.  The rapid technological progression frightened both Huxley and Orwell; they found it threatening.  In the span of only a few generations, humanity had gone from using horses and carriages for transportation to having airplanes and automobiles’ (Orwell’s Panopticon, Dystopia in Control – VIA https://sites.google.com/site/dystopiaincontrol/orwell-s-panopticon)

big-brother-logo-101

 

CTS LECTURE 5, 3/11/15, UTOPIA

14_hippie-tree-house-village-in-Hawaii

TAYLOR CAMP: a place to break away from the outbreak and oppression during the Vietnam war – a safe haven and society where families, hippies, surfers and many more were welcomed to live in harmony and peace (clothes were optional)

(VIA – http://www.theplaidzebra.com/take-a-peek-inside-this-magical-1969-hippie-tree-house-village-in-hawaii/)

Taylor camp was a prime example of this: Ohn Wehrheim remembers the utopian community, rejecting materialism for the therapeutic power of nature, in a golden hue. To this day he still tenderly refers to Taylor Camp as his “dream assignment.” He remembers how rays of light would flood through the tree line, how laughter would trickle from sun kissed bodies,  and the sense of solidarity that purveyed it all.

A Utopia is where something is modelled on or aiming for a state in which everything is idealistic or perfect. It is the opposite of a dystopian world – which some can argue exists all around us. It was first described by Sir Thomas More in his Book ‘Utopia’ (1516) where it describes a magical fictional society in the Atlantic Ocean.

Much like the theme of countercultures, the idea of a Utopian society isn’t as prevalent as it was when the birth of new exciting groups were emerging. Much like the hippie counterculture in the late 1960’s, one can argue that they lived the actual most Utopian life. Now- with the recycled generations of styles and ideologies.. are we living a Utopian world or imitating something that it makes it all even more backwards than not having it at all?

Wolfe discusses the magical trips that Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters embarked on in the late 1960’s. ‘You’re either on the bus or off the bus’ (1967, p. 134), translating to how you would either be full of love and trip LSD and be at one with everyone in the group, or you we’re out. No negative vibes, no superficialities.. just pure honesty, love and truth- which is what the basis of existence should be right?

alice

Paradise concept.

Illustration depicting a green roadsign with a paradise concept. Blue sky background.

kesey3

How Ken Kesey used LSD and a travelling bus of hippies to start the 60s psychedelic revolution

We further look into a Utopian world and learn that it is a literary genre, which depicts a society in great detail in different times and space. Nonetheless, they are depicted as people living their everyday lives, but transformed into an idea of what the ultimate life should be. But my question is, who gets to define what perfection is and does this really exist? My defence is that it lies in the eyes of the beholder- and is one million percent subjective in every way. ‘Utopias are like what narrative dreams should be’. Take Alice in Wonderland for example. She stumbles across her perfect, magical world. Would that be the same for the rest of us?

CTS LECTURE 4, 27/10/15, COUNTERCULTURE

COUNTERCULTURE

‘Does it still exist in contemporary networked society?’

Counterculture undeniably still exists today. Does it still have as much of a positive impact as it did in the 60s such as the hippie counterculture that derived from the Beatnik Generation, and then onto the Merry Pranksters? In my personal opinion it certainly doesn’t (But this is a whole other elaborate argument that I feel personally to).

cts-merry pranksters

(source: https://luckybogey.wordpress.com/2009/08/17/counterculture-the-summer-of-love-woodstock-and-wounded-hippies/)

Countercultures will continue to exist as technology and trends are forever changing, much like music, art and fashion – which are some of the main domains for birthing countercultures and subcultures. In the contemporary world, you can argue that a ‘Belieber’ is a colossal mainstream culture and following, all from the teen pop artist Justin Bieber. I won’t leave a comment to this but ask yourself if this preaches the same intellectual and benevolent traits that a hippie had? But when coming to terms with countercultures, which according to the literal definition from the British Library, this is where:

A countercultural action or expression communicates disagreement, opposition, disobedience or rebellion. A counterculture rejects or challenges mainstream culture or particualr elements of it.

This might mean:

Protesting against a particular situation or issue/ Rebelling against the accepted or acceptable way of doing things/ Struggling for liberation when you are oppressed or marginalised/ Finding new ways to represent yourself when you are misrepresented or simply not represented/ Creating your own culture when you are dissatisfied with the culture that is made for you

Comparing it to current affairs, one could argue that ISIS and the extremists are an example of a counterculture that is undeniably protesting the issue of Islam in the wrong way, thus rebelling to the rest of the world as whole… It is immensely scary and shocking to read and see what they are doing to our world and thousands of innocent people today, and we are all meditating on the hope that this will come to an end. If only hippie countercultures were filtered through to them, then this would all be very different.

There we go.

While watching videos about Woodstock on youtube, I came across this beautiful yet angst comment from a 16-year-old girl. It struck me deep and made me realize that it’s not the whole generation of teenagers today who share the same view, which I find to be transparent and irrelevant, as the world is slowly forgetting how to live, much like they did in the past:

Hellen Yuger 7 months ago

I’m 16 and this generation we live in is terrible. I don’t care what anyone says. Just look at those people in that video. THEYRE FREE. They are there for love and for music and isn’t that really what we all are here on earth for? We aren’t here to go to school or to get a job or to pay taxes or live in big fancy houses. People don’t understand that. Life is so simple. Music and love. That’s all we need. I wish I could have gone to Woodstock. I wish I could have been around during that time to feel the love. The friendship and the unity. Now adays it feels like we are all on our own. Any opinion you have or say seems like a violation to everyone. you can’t speak you can’t dress or be a certain way without being judged and it’s not like I’m one to care about that but I know others care and I wish they didn’t have to, I wish we all just didn’t care. I HATE THIS GENERATION I hate the stupid I phones and iPads and cameras and music and everything. The people are mean. The love is just for sex. The music is just for dance, not for the feeling or the words. I dream that one day it will happen again. The hippies. I dream that we will be free and I don’t want to have Woodstock again because you can never repeat such history like that. But I hope one day we can have something like Woodstock. Something that makes us humans one. One day.

cts-jimi

(source: http://proyectx.com/2015/02/12/woodstock/)

Hellen goes against her generation completely in a very mature state of mind quoting that she wishes she could have gone to Woodstock and the shared actions and mentalities of people then are fair greater and more fulfilling than they can ever be now. She quotes: ‘I hate the stupid I phones and iPads and cameras and music and everything. The people are mean’. Could technology be to blame for the change of mentality and ideas? As everything is rapidly becoming more accessible in every way, does this mean that our identities and views will eradicate too? Will there be any free will left at all? This is the fight that I am glad 16 year olds such as Hellen are willing to fight.

Trailer to the 1970 documentary, ‘Woodstock’

cts-woodstock-1969-poster-woodstock69

(source: http://www.woodstockstory.com/woodstockpostersandcdsdrawing.html)

cts-woodstock

(source: http://woodstockwitness.com/)

‘I dream that one day it will happen again. The hippies. I dream that we will be free and I don’t want to have Woodstock again because you can never repeat such history like that.’ As I write about this girls quote, I am nodding my head. I agree with her in every way, with every inch of my body. It is scary looking out at the world and seeing how most seem like robots, caring about miniscule things, about appearance, forgetting how to feel, how to interact. Is this really where us as a society of humans are heading?

Furthermore, when it comes to contemporary networked counterculture, this is prevalent in many different fields. Not just music, such as Woodstock then is to the teen-pop craze now, but in areas such as video games. The virtual world has turned into some people’s realities and can turn into dangerous addictions acquired by young children. Here is an interesting article I read about:

http://www.vice.com/en_uk/read/video-game-addiction-is-destroying-american-lives-456

It focuses on a 12 year old who has an extremely unhealthy addiction with gaming and in particular the game ‘Counterstrike’. Nonetheless this paragraphs show the extensive problems this causes on some:

‘Brett isn’t alone in his struggle with gaming. Over the past decade, we’ve seen several tragic stories of addicted gamers make international headlines. Seungseob Lee, a boiler repairman in South Korea, played StarCraft for more than 50 consecutive hours at an internet café before suffering a fatal heart attack. In China, a man named Xu Yan died after playing an online game persistently for two weeks. And in America, a woman named Rebecca Christie was sentenced to 25 years in prison after she allowed her daughter to starve to death while Christie was preoccupied with World of Warcraft.’

As a generation who has the power to change the views we have and the actions we have on the world, we all have to tackle these problems together and realize what is truly important. There is so much going on in the world that involves anger, riots and hatred. Let us all eradicate this and possess the vital beliefs that countercultures then lived on a day-to-day basis.

cts-loveisfree

CTS LECTURE 3, 13/10/15

Performing the Digital Self: Can the networked Society be seen as a ‘re-flowering’ of Mikhail Bakhtin’s Carnivalesque?

 In response to the external read on Bakhtin’s thesis on French humanist writer Francois Rabelais ( CC.1494-1553), it was not only satirical yet is a perfect example of parodic literature. All about the image in relation to carnival festivities, Bakhtin brings upon humorous inquisitions as opposed to serious tones of the medieval, ecclesiastical and feudal cultures of the piece. Bakhtin was a free thinker and an intellectual during a time of repressive control, due to the Stalinist years. Because of this and being brave, he was arrested and exiled. The exert focuses on influence of popular culture that makes it fun to read and easily relatable to carnivals and festivities that we have in the contemporary world today. He points out and highlights the disgust of bodily actions at times, such as eating and drinking and excreting all in the same scene- much as the medieval times were, but how it still (in a sense) is currently. One can relate this back to Ancient Greek mythologies, which were some of the first forms of literature that we know today; and in particular to stories of Bacchus and Bacchic rituals of no self control, euphoria and celebration.

cts-Bruegel-carnival

(source: ‘The Fight between Carnival and Lent’ Breughel the Elder (1559) available at: https:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ The_Fight_Between_Carnival_and_Lent#/media/ File:Pieter_Bruegel_IICombat_de_Carnaval_et_Careme_IMG_1463.JPG [Last accessed: 19/10/15] )

Compared to a contemporary ‘carnival’, such as the famous Notting Hill Carnival that happens annually in August:

cts-nhcarnival

(source: http://now-here-this.timeout.com/2014/08/24/9-incredible-gifs-of-police-officers-dancing-at-notting-hill-carnival/ )

 

 

 

*Pre read before 13/10/15 lecture*

 ‘Digital Deception- the practice of lying in the digital age’
By Jeffrey T. Hancock

‘We have the powers of the Gods’, is what Hancock refers to at the start, after a short exert to Homer’s Odyssey. Athena’s disguise on Odssyey to prove a point of loyalty from his loved ones is what Hancock relates deceit through the internet today. With regards to deception, it is very common that people can pretend to be someone their not on the Internet today. Digital deception is prevalent everywhere, and this is not only terrifying but makes us question trust.

In the contemporary world and through the growth and widespread of social media, artificial identities, fraud and many other forms of lies are perceived: ‘The intentional control of information in a technologically mediated message to create a false belief in the receiver of the message’. A large part of internet deception is spamming, identity and the manipulation of photographs. A very good example of this would be dating sites. Today, things such as Tinder and Grinder are leading examples of where this occurs and the term is known as ‘catfishing’ – which has been turned into a TV show, finding and facing the culprits and their victims.

Max Joseph (left) and Yaniv ``Nev'' Schulman

Max Joseph (left) and Yaniv “Nev” Schulman

(source: http://recruitingdaily.com/worst-job-interviews-ever-part-2/)

cts-tinder

(source: http://www.droid-life.com/2015/02/02/tinder-plus-a-paid-version-of-the-popular-dating-app-coming-to-android-next-month/)

It is a sad reality, yet when you think about it, deception and communication are used by nearly all of us on a daily basis. We don’t need to be in the same physical space with another person in order to communicate anymore. Technology has allowed us to have it all at our fingertips. Because of this, we can argue that the virtual world is sadly taking over physical interaction, thus communication is becoming thoroughly disembodied.

 Sherry Turkle looks at the common expression ‘Online, no one knows you’re a dog’ with a response of ‘(The internet is) A social laboratory for experimenting with identity’. It is much too easy and accessible for anyone to do this now, bringing my argument back to trust.

There is a very interesting website I looked at that I found in Hancock’s piece called ‘Postsecret’. This is an anonymous confessions page where oen can send a postcard with a secret or confession on it to send to a P.O. Box in Maryland. Reading some of them I was shocked and intrigued at the same time; Online = Perceived anonymity and disinhibition. This leads to people to engage in more risky behavior. When anonymous, you have the power to be who you want to be and do whatever you want to do without the risk of people finding out and hurting others. There is a combination of increased self – awareness and decreased awareness of others perceptions of self may be one reason that technology promotes self-disclosure and honesty. A perfect example of this is text messaging: A study shows that people feel more comfortable tackling an issue through text as one can disclose more personal info without having to deal with physical interaction of feeling judged by another.

(source: http://postsecret.com/)

CTS LECTURE 2, 13/10/15

Research Methods + Definitions

At the end of our second afternoon lecture we went through a list of definitions that we will have to start recognising and using in our writings. It was a little overwhelming getting these pedantic words and meanings all at once, but this is the real world I guess!

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(….it’s time to read more books)

CTS LECTURE 1, 6/10/15 ‘Transmedia Storytelling’

network |ˈnɛtwəːk|

noun

1 an arrangement of intersecting horizontal and vertical lines. a spider constructs a complex network of several different kinds of threads.

2 a group or system of interconnected people or things: the company has a network of 326 branches | a trade network.

  • a complex system of railways, roads, or other routes: the railway network.
  • a group of people who exchange information and contacts for professional or social purposes: a support network.
  • a group of broadcasting stations that connect for the simultaneous broadcast of a programme: [ as modifier ] : network television.
  • a number of interconnected computers, machines, or operations. a computer network.
  • a system of connected electrical conductors.

verb

1 [ with obj. ] connect as or operate with a network: compared with the railways the canals were less effectively networked.

  • Brit. broadcast (a programme) on a network: the Spurs match which ITV had networked.
  • link (computers or other machines) to operate interactively. more and more PCs are networked together. (as adj. networked) : networked workstations.

2 [ no obj. ] (often as nounnetworking) interact with others to exchange information and develop professional or social contacts. the skills of networking, bargaining, and negotiation.

DERIVATIVES

networkable adjective

Before we began discussing our first lecture, our tutor introduced the basis of what we were going to learn over the course of the term. Our first exercise was to visualize what a network looked like to us. We had a minute to draw it out and then discuss and compare what we came up with across the class. This was really interesting as even though we all had different drawings, we all had the main fact in common: all our shapes and lines were somehow connected; and that is exactly what a network is.

social class

noun

a division of a society based on social and economic status: people from different social classes and walks of life | her social class excluded her from training at an art school | [ mass noun ] : Austen was a keen observer of social class.

The next task was to draw and visualize a social class or a hierarchy. I drew mine like a circular tornado, where the top of it was larger and it gradually got smaller, as that is what I see a social class as being; yet again, everyone is still connected in a way as we make the whole human race and existence together.

**

Henry Jenkins is a media scholar who is currently still a professor of Journalism, Communication and various Cinematic Arts at various renowned institutions across America. He came up with the main debate of the whole idea of what Transmedia is, what it does, who does it and why. He makes the point of using networks to create movements that would subsequently change the network world. In 2007 he quoted: ‘integral elements of a fiction get dispersed systematically across multiple delivery channels for the purpose of creating a unified and coordinated entertainment experience’. This relates and defends a slide we were shown all about political satire. Examples that we can relate to this today to are cartoons such as Family Guy and South Park who bring light to current affairs and issues in the world. This is a perfect example to reach out and connect to societies who might find the truths too heavy, thus backing up Jenkins quote as a whole.

cts harry jenkins ted

(source: YouTube,. ‘Tedxnyed – Henry Jenkins – 03/06/10’. N.p., 2015. Web. 18 Nov. 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AFCLKa0XRlw )

I watched Jenkins’ TEDxNYED talk and here are my notes that I made while watching it as I’d like to highlight some of the interesting facts that Jenkins has taught me about the history of transmedia storytelling: He draws the distinction between participatory culture and participatory media and starts off with an example of a man from NY called Peter who has access to the internet, thus is known as ‘a master of the web’ (and this can apply to anyone who has access to this ‘privileage’ that we find everywhere today. He makes the analogy that Peter is known as ‘Peter Parker’, otherwise Spiderman, as he is all powerful and all knowing now; ‘great power comes great responsibility… through the internet’. Here he insinuates how young people and adults can meet on a balanced platform through common interests, i.e. participatory culture. He bridges the relationship and similarities that an everyday being has to a superhero through the power and knowledge of the internet. He ends his introduction with how today, 65% of American teens share things on the internet, resulting in them becoming instant participants of society.

The next phase is the history of participatory culture and where it derived from: It has always been around and a main turning point of it was the late 1800’s when print presses were used for zine’s as means to express ideas and creativity shared by a society or community. This transformed into varied comics in the 1900s, hippy countercultures through music and art in the 60s/70s and as another example, the indie counterculture in the early 2000s through radio and media. Subsequently, the people are the one’s who engaged with the world, through the use of growing technology. When someone throws an idea out into the world, it can come back in an improved way due to participation through communities.

cts hippie counterculture zine

(source: http://www.philipsandifer.com/blog/pop-between-realities-home-in-time-for-tea-3-international-times-oz-kenneth-grant-fifa-world-cup/)

 Relating to the rest of the slides in our lecture, the use of Games become an enormous platform for various amounts of civic and political activism. Big examples are things such as The World of Warcraft and other games such as Arkham Assylum, which was one of the top grossing comic book games that came from Batman. This implies how activism and political views can take place in a virtual environment.

Other examples are tv shows such as Family Guy, South Park and Saturday Night Live, as they are communicating current views and affairs through satirical play, rather than traditional journalism. This is the perfect example or alternative views as it has the ability to engage to a larger audience, and brings a light to heavy situations. ‘Play’ is now one of the most powerful forms of teaching, and examples of this goes back to centuries ago that exist today in activities such as playing dress up or having tea parties as infants.

Here's Super Obama

Ref: SPL88869 230309 Picture by: Splash News/Wizard
Pictured: Barack Obama, superhero
Splash News and Pictures
Los Angeles: 310-821-2666
New York: 212-619-2666
London: 870-934-2666
photodesk@splashnews.com

(source: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1164352/Comic-book-hero-Super-Obama-flies-save-day—hopefully-economy.html)

He concludes with an important question that he asks his audience: (When it comes to social media and the play of transmedia storytelling) ‘shouldn’t we bring it to the classroom?’ Surely it is varied and educational enough to be the best resources. Continuity Vs. Multiplicity is to thank for this. Fan participation (in relation to activism and to express views) has changed the world, and the power of social media is one of the key ingredients as to why.

Screen Shot 2015-11-18 at 11.54.07

(source: screenshot from TEDxNYED talk https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AFCLKa0XRlw)

Answering the questions for this weeks lectures goes as follows:

  • One of the main Contemporary transmedia worlds that fascinate and influence me would undeniably be Disney. Disney characters have such a large impact on the world, especially from a very young age. We are brought up with cartoons, and for example, Disney princesses and heroes become our idols. We create this distinct bond with them as they are personified as being independent, strong and beautiful. Many examples of how this has influenced the world is shown through characters at Disneyland, cosplay and through varying means of social activism and satirical variations of this.
  • They continue to be transformed into many dfferent areas such as newer releases of the original stories and cartoons, turned into different movies, prequals, games and much more that can relate to a larger audience of many ages. Disney is designed to relate to the people. Not being too immature or too mature. If you look at some of the stories closely, the hold heavy issues (as they originally come from dark and twisted tales) that are displayed through light hearted and beautiful cartoons paired with music that is easy on the ears.

cts pocahontas comic 2

(source: http://www.comicvine.com/disney-comic-hits-7-pocahontasnatures-way/4000-141879/, source for featured image: http://www.comiccollectorlive.com/LiveData/Issue.aspx?id=f381cf00-1c4d-4b6f-a618-8da35345e3a1 )

Catalogue presentation

For my essay, I have chosen Greta Hauer’s topic: ‘Bleached dreams – troubling spaces’ with the question of ‘How does the Simulated Spaces and/or a Non-Space space alter our identity?’  I was drawn to her topic as I am fascinated by the concept of disneyization and how this affects our society, cultures and identities. I feel there are alot of resources and research that can support this topic and it fascinates me how it involves each and every one of us.

Disneyization

IMG_0628 IMG_0675 IMG_0718*My own photographs from the Perhentian Islands in Malaysia – – my own paradise… a real Utopia, although disneyization trickles in with the bars at night blaring loud westernised music, playing football games and baking oven stone pizzas – as if you are home wherever you’re from in the Western world – yet you’re in Paradise… a paradoxical yet fantastic environment*

John-Patrick Hartnett- ‘Typography and communication’

What is typography? Is it lettering? Is it the way words look on a page?

Typography
noun [ mass noun ]
the style and appearance of printed matter.
1) the art or procedure of arranging type or processing data and printing from it.

important-images

‘Important Images’ Robert and Durrer poster, 1990

‘Typography exists to honour content. Typography is an artificial construct or a artificial hybrid. Typographies role is durability; it can transcend time – at its best, it is a visual form of language, linking facts and observations’, quotes John-Patrick Hartnett as he opened his lecture with this line. As graphic designers, we will naturally be surrounded by it as it is a large and vital part of what we are supposed to know. Hartnett presented us a list of different ways to explain what typography could be;

“Typography is writing with pre-fabricated letters” – Gerrit Noordzij

“A craft that’s been practiced since Coutenberg’s invention of moveable type”

“The art and craft / process of composing type and printing from it” – Colins English Dictionary

In my opinion, there isn’t an exact definition of what typography is, as it is what you make it out to be; yet it has to involve the design and appearance of type on a page.

Prior to his lecture, he asked us to do some preparatory reading from the book ‘The Elements of Typographic Style’ by Robert Bringhurst. Bringhurst said ‘Typography is giving living energy to a page through text’ (1992, p.19) . I agree with this line, as that is exactly what it is. Typography and images need one another and symbiotically work to create strong and powerful pages. The rest of the notes I got from the pre reading are:

  • Typography is at its best, a visual form of language linking timelessness and time
  • Well chosen words deserve well chosen letters – I find this very accurate and aim to apply this line to everything and anything I do
  • Typography is idealized writing
  • There will forever be a ‘style beyond style’
  • The relationship between manuscript and type has scarcely changed
  • Typography is to separate thought with speech and action
  • The typographic performance must reveal, not replace the inner works
  • Letters are microscopic works of art as well as useful symbols: ‘They mean what they are as well as what they say’

To summarize: The basic rules are to read and understand text > to analyse and map it > so typographical interpretation can finally begin

Invite the reader into text / Reveal the meaning of text/ Clarify structure and order/ Link the text with other existing elements/ induce energetic repose

Here are some examples of great typographic works that he showed us in the lecture:

der-berufsphotograph-tschichold

‘The professional’, photographer poster, Jan Tschichold, 1938

I found this piece to be particularly compelling as Schendel creates her own private language with this ‘foreign’ and personal typographic code.

Overall, I found this lecture to be highly innovative and educational. Hartnett showed us many examples of good typography through the years. He showed us the history of it and where it all started. When Andrew our tutor came in after to take the second half of our CTS class, he asked us to write an ‘I remember’ paragraph, to overview what we learnt from the lecture. So I will end this lecture review with this:

‘I remember how typography can be communicated in various ways. Throughout the years, styles and aesthetics may change, yet the main message of the letters still remain important.’

‘I remember how typography is idealized writing and there will forever be a style beyond style.’

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‘Puzzle Special’, Guardian Supplement, Marian Bantjes (2007)
– Text hidden within suduho shapes and patterns

bantjes_2008_saks-heart

‘Saks Heart’, Marian Bantjes (2008). She created this for Saks Fifth Avenue on Valentine’s day. It contains a number of hidden words that make up the image of the heart.